Chris Dede – 10 Big Question, with some big answers

“Ten BIG QUESTIONS are dominating current discussion
about educational technology:

  • How do we pay for multimedia-capable, Internet-connected
    classroom computers for every two to three students?
  • How can my school afford enough computers and
  • How do I get my colleagues involved with educational
  • How do we move our community beyond traditional ideas about
    teaching, learning, and the role of schools?
  • How do we prove to our community that new technology-based
    models of teaching/learning are “better”?
  • If we use technology well, what should we expect as “typical”
    student performance?
  • What comes next after the World Wide Web?
  • How can educational technology increase equity rather than
    widening current gaps?
  • Where can I get external funds for innovation?
  • How can I keep up?”
How do we pay for capable computers for every 2-3 students?

– We can’t! Computers aren’t the only, Ignores fhe teacher
training needs, Ongoing costs are prohibitive

-We shouldn’t do it! Wrong model
We need more financial leverage from outside (the school)
technology and develop learning as part of living. This will
require the building community partnerships.

How can we afford enough technology? (ie; without doing
anything else)

”Enough” is a moving target

How do expenditures alter when educational technology is used

-Less textbooks

-Less data managment

-Less Reteaching

-Dillerent ratios Of student :teacher
How do we move our community beyond traditional ideas of
learning and teaching.

-3rd generation thinking

-Active collaborative

-Shared cognition

-Distributed learning
How do we Prove the new models are Better?


Motivational Evidence

Expanding range of topics

Conventional content Mastered by More, Sooner

Skills for knowledge based workplace

Higher outcomes on standardized test
What should we expect as typical student performance?

Beyond TIMSS and Similar tests, beyond dlsipliie based

Beyond new pedegody

Equity Question? Initial Widening but Ultimate Narrowing

Content and services are as Important as access and literacy.

Integrating the internet into the classroom

Four Parts
  • Equipment
  • Access
  • Connectivity
  • Training
Previous experience running a Webcamp for teachers. At the
beginning no one scored themselves below a 3 on the technology
rubric. After the course their scores went down because they
didn’t know what they didn’t know.

Three uses for the internet

Internet as a ProD tool

Teaching and learning about the Internet

Teaching and learning with the Internet

E-merging instructional practices on the Internet us/ ~black/ NECC97.html

lt’s Not the Internet its the Information

Ian Jukes

Handout At :

We Continue to focus On hardware

So the revolutioi isn’t here yet

Don’t blame a pencil if a kid can’t write

Headware not hardware

Who is this guy?

  • what is he going to do?
  • overview of Internet from different perspective
  • present and future of Internet for schools
  • outline information literacy curriculum
The Internet Revolution: Do you remember when?
  • you didn’t see gee whiz articles about the Internet in
    magazines and newspapers
  • surfing was done outdoors
  • Java was something you drank
  • the Web was a TV or a phone
  • you didn’t see “http://” written at the bottom of ads
  • you didn’t have to explain the @ sign
  • how long ago was that? 19 months
  • it has been there for some time, but it’s been flying below
    our personal radar
It’s spreading like wildfire
  • become the infrastructure for every company and industry in
  • although many just don’t know it
  • world’s largest economic sector
  • an import surpassing oil and steel
  • driving fundamental changes in business and community
  • new reality for 21st Century
What’s happening?
  • explosion in summer of 1995
  • went overnight from geekhood to coolness
  • from a special thing done by a small priesthood to public
    consciousness overnight
  • abolished distance making everywhere here
  • in ’94 there were no commercial Web sites
  • now they number in 6 figures
  • everyone’s registering domains
  • Yahoo gets 3,000 plus submissions daily
  • Web doubling every 53 days
  • this is biological growth – like red tide/lemmings
The e-mail explosion
  • 30 million messages daily
  • the equivalent of $9 million worth of first class mail
  • total volume by Post Office is up 5% since ’88
  • but business mail is down by 33% in same period
  • only stuff that goes through is at-risk mail
  • post office has become one giant piece of road kill on
    information highway
What is happening?
  • cyberspace now middle class suburb
  • this has happened in a world of $2,500 computers where using
    telecommunications is like trying to suck peanut butter up a straw
What will happen?
  • when we see $500 network computers combined with @Home cable
    modem at 10,000,000 bps
  • will the number of users go up, down, or stay same?
  • obviously it’ll go up – this in part explains Internet fever
    and the rapid stock market
Where are we heading?
  • we ain’t there yet…
  • still hearing lots of criticism
  • there are lots of problems related to slowness, security,
    under/over regulation, and potential overload
  • this shouldn’t concern us as eventually Net will handle them –
    but this takes time
  • but despite problems, a critical mass has been reached – we
    must acknowledge the sheer magnitude of an expanding base of true
Nothing but Net
  • there is controversy over how many regular users there are but
    no controversy about the fact that the Internet is coming at us
    like tidal a wave
  • it’s hard to exaggerate importance
  • it’s opening communications to masses and quickly racing
    toward full-fledged status as commercial medium
So What About Schools?

  • is it really a technological revolution?
  • since late 70’s, billions of dollars and words have been spent
  • in the 1995/96 academic year alone, tech spending in
    K&endash;12 public schools was $4 billion – twice the amount spent
    on textbooks
So what’s the problem?
  • we have endured years of hype and hope for electronic
    education, most of which has been undertaken with the very best of
  • unfortunately, the primary focus has been on tool and hardware
    du jour
  • as a result, the revolution is still not here – why?
  • we primarily focused on the tool not the application of the
    tool to curriculum
  • we can’t blame a pencil if a child can’t read or do math – and
    we can’t blame the technology for failing
  • the problem lies mainly with curriculum and teaching
  • so how does this relate to the Internet?
  • it’s déjà vu all over again!
What about the Internet?
  • 90% of classrooms in America today don’t have access
  • beyond that, classrooms are limited by the available equipment
    as only 12% of computers in schools today are capable of Graphical
    User Interface access to the Internet
  • 35-50% of schools have some access but this is usually a
    single station located in a classroom, the office or the library
  • this is like having a single pencil for the entire school and
    expecting everyone to become pencil literate
Where are we heading?

  • only 9% of classes have access (which is up from 3% in 1994)
    but this will change quickly based on trends about Internet access
    outside of education
  • but based on the trends outside of schools, let’s extrapolate
  • 5 years from now – do you think that there will be more, less,
    or the same level of access for students?
So what’s the problem then?
  • it’s not about access – this will happen
  • very few doubt the power and potential of age-appropriate tech
    to transform education
  • the problem won’t be access to computers or the Internet
  • no – the real problem is about the focus
What’s wrong?
  • instructional technology holds enormous potential for
    instruction and learning allowing access for any student in their
    native language to a world that they are very comfortable with
  • it provides opportunities to take digital field trips and
    access to world-wide resources
  • this isn’t the problem – it’s the mindset that we’re applying
    to the technology
  • we need to prepare for this new world – and we need a new
    mindset that focuses on a new curriculum and new teaching
How is it being used today?

  • for most we use a proximal learning model – we put students
    close to the technology and hope or assume that somehow they will
    learn by osmosis – unfortunately, more often than not this does
    not happen
  • the problem is that kids know more than teachers so the kids
    define the context and content
  • so where do they go? to Wrestlemania, the Scooby Doo home
    page, the NBA online, to live chat lines and to the Doom home page
So what’s the problem?
  • most schools today are little more than ISPs because students
    and teachers are using Internet services without an instructional
  • we have to ask whether this new media to be used for higher
    level learning or will it just become a new generation of
    educational Nintendo?
What skills are needed?
  • skills needed to effectively utilize Internet are little
    different than those used in a library – the only difference is
    that we have new technology, but despite this, we’re applying an
    old mindset
  • whatever the medium, users need a set of analytical skills to
    process this information – but schools have never really mastered
    teaching of information literacy
It’s not the tool, it’s the task
  • tools have no meaning without context – if I give you a
    shovel, you have no idea what the context is – but if I give you a
    shovel and tell you to dig a ditch, it has a context
  • the Internet is a great tool, but for what?
  • and this the crux of the problem – many teachers just give
    students the Internet and then get out of the way
  • this is a case of leap of faith, proximal learning!
  • as a result, we are simply replicating old problems and
    processes with new technology – now we get animated, full color
    meaningless, gratuitous information more quickly – this is not
  • for learning to take place, it must do so inside a context
The problem transcends technology
  • in the past, we gave kids an assignment on Saturn and got back
    the Encyclopedia Britannica
  • along came optical disc technology – we gave kids an
    assignment on Saturn and got back the Grolier’s Multimedia
  • now we give kids an assignment on Saturn and we get back the
  • this is simply information bulimia – they suck up the
    information and spit it out with little consideration of what it
    means – as a result, many of our students are suffering from
    intellectual and informational anorexia
  • schools think that if they’re connected, they’re doing it
What’s wrong?
  • instructional technology and Internet are being used to gather
    raw data but much of the writing and research is garbage
  • information is not knowledge; and computer literacy doesn’t
    necessarily cultivate information literacy
  • it appears that the Internet breeds a kind of intellectual
  • the ability to find and list data is no substitute for
    figuring out how to organize information
  • as a consequence, even in schools with full connections
    students can surf the Net but can’t move beyond visiting home
Geraldoization of information
  • the Internet is a wasteland of unedited data without any
    pretense of completeness – it lacks editors, reviewers, and
    critics – as a consequence it is predominantly not information,
    but noise
  • the problem is that this is not recognized by most students
    and teachers
  • this is the crux of problem – people have not been able to get
    beyond oohing and aahing about sites and suffering from terminal
  • as a consequence, we really need to shift gears… because
    it’s not the Internet, it’s the information that’s important
What is needed?

  • people need more than just raw data – they must look beyond
    the data for significance
  • what skills are needed to see significance of data?
An example
  • the Captain Picard model of problem solving
  • how and when does he use technology?
  • only when he has a task to do
  • he asks a question of the computer based on a problem
  • access to technology is transparent
  • he then analyzes the data retrieved and turns it into
  • then applies the knowledge to solve the problem
  • then assesses process_ he has undertaken
5 Stages of Information Literacy
  • Ask
  • Access
  • Analyze
  • Apply
  • Assess
Stage 1 – Ask

  • comes out of a problem
  • if you don’t have a problem, you don’t have a question
  • at this stage you are defining problem
  • problem solving fosters ownership of learning
Stage 2 – Access
  • strategies more important than tools
  • use driven by context created by questions
  • searching techniques used to locate information
  • techniques are media independent
Stage 3 – Analyze
  • how credible is the information
  • need to use the tripod model of analyzing – the stool won’t
    stand unless it has 3 legs so the information can’t be trusted
    unless there are 3 corroborating sources
  • students must be able to look at information critically
Stage 4 – Apply
  • use information to solve problem, write essay, do report,
    create graph, complete argument, make presentations
  • at this stage, you must take what you’ve got and create
  • need to submit both raw material and analysis
  • access is nothing if you can’t both analyze and apply what you
    have obtained – to do this you need both technical and conceptual
Stage 5 – Assess

  • have original goals been met?
  • what has been learned?
  • not just what has been learned but also how it was learned?
  • how could process or product be improved?
This is what the Internet needs to be about!

Information literacy

  • transcends Internet
  • applies equally well to magazines, newspapers, textbooks,
  • it’s not the tool, it’s the task
  • it’s an issue of headware not hardware
It’s not the Internet, it’s the information
  • what we have is data explosion not knowledge explosion
  • we have the best educated, least prepared generation
  • we need the tools but we can’t stop there
  • we need repeated opportunities within formal, structured
    informational context
Achieving information literacy
  • students need to work with the information resources that will
    bombard them throughout life
  • this is not just about the ability to read and regurgitate
    facts – it’s about knowing where to find facts and then how to use
  • it’s about using real-life information resources for solving
    real-world problems
  • my greatest fear is that if students view and use the Internet
    the way they view and use encyclopedias and CD-ROMs, we will
    continue to get what we’ve always got
It’s time to shift gears

  • we must move students and teachers from a quantitative to
    qualitative mindset
  • it’s not how much information they have, it’s how much
    knowledge they’ve gained
Making the shift
  • the bottom line is that it’s not what you use but how you use

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