Chris Dede – 10 Big Question, with some big answers
“Ten BIG QUESTIONS are dominating current discussion
about educational technology:
- How do we pay for multimedia-capable, Internet-connected
classroom computers for every two to three students?
- How can my school afford enough computers and
- How do I get my colleagues involved with educational
- How do we move our community beyond traditional ideas about
teaching, learning, and the role of schools?
- How do we prove to our community that new technology-based
models of teaching/learning are “better”?
- If we use technology well, what should we expect as “typical”
- What comes next after the World Wide Web?
- How can educational technology increase equity rather than
widening current gaps?
- Where can I get external funds for innovation?
- How can I keep up?”
- How do we pay for capable computers for every 2-3 students?
- – We can’t! Computers aren’t the only, Ignores fhe teacher
training needs, Ongoing costs are prohibitive
- -We shouldn’t do it! Wrong model
- – We can’t! Computers aren’t the only, Ignores fhe teacher
- We need more financial leverage from outside (the school)
technology and develop learning as part of living. This will
require the building community partnerships.
- How can we afford enough technology? (ie; without doing
- ”Enough” is a moving target
- How do expenditures alter when educational technology is used
- -Less textbooks
- -Less data managment
- -Less Reteaching
- -Dillerent ratios Of student :teacher
- How do we move our community beyond traditional ideas of
learning and teaching.
- -3rd generation thinking
- -Active collaborative
- -Shared cognition
- -Distributed learning
- How do we Prove the new models are Better?
- Motivational Evidence
- Expanding range of topics
- Conventional content Mastered by More, Sooner
- Skills for knowledge based workplace
- Higher outcomes on standardized test
- What should we expect as typical student performance?
- Beyond TIMSS and Similar tests, beyond dlsipliie based
- Beyond new pedegody
- Equity Question? Initial Widening but Ultimate Narrowing
- Content and services are as Important as access and literacy.
Integrating the internet into the classroom
- Four Parts
- Previous experience running a Webcamp for teachers. At the
beginning no one scored themselves below a 3 on the technology
rubric. After the course their scores went down because they
didn’t know what they didn’t know.
- Three uses for the internet
- Internet as a ProD tool
- Teaching and learning about the Internet
- Teaching and learning with the Internet
E-merging instructional practices on the Internet
- bvsd.k12.co. us/ ~black/ NECC97.html
lt’s Not the Internet its the Information
- Handout At : http://www.tcpd.org
- We Continue to focus On hardware
- So the revolutioi isn’t here yet
- Don’t blame a pencil if a kid can’t write
- Headware not hardware
Who is this guy?
- what is he going to do?
- overview of Internet from different perspective
- present and future of Internet for schools
- outline information literacy curriculum
- The Internet Revolution: Do you remember when?
- you didn’t see gee whiz articles about the Internet in
magazines and newspapers
- surfing was done outdoors
- Java was something you drank
- the Web was a TV or a phone
- you didn’t see “http://” written at the bottom of ads
- you didn’t have to explain the @ sign
- how long ago was that? 19 months
- it has been there for some time, but it’s been flying below
our personal radar
- It’s spreading like wildfire
- become the infrastructure for every company and industry in
- although many just don’t know it
- world’s largest economic sector
- an import surpassing oil and steel
- driving fundamental changes in business and community
- new reality for 21st Century
- What’s happening?
- explosion in summer of 1995
- went overnight from geekhood to coolness
- from a special thing done by a small priesthood to public
- abolished distance making everywhere here
- in ’94 there were no commercial Web sites
- now they number in 6 figures
- everyone’s registering domains
- Yahoo gets 3,000 plus submissions daily
- Web doubling every 53 days
- this is biological growth – like red tide/lemmings
- The e-mail explosion
- 30 million messages daily
- the equivalent of $9 million worth of first class mail
- total volume by Post Office is up 5% since ’88
- but business mail is down by 33% in same period
- only stuff that goes through is at-risk mail
- post office has become one giant piece of road kill on
- What is happening?
- cyberspace now middle class suburb
- this has happened in a world of $2,500 computers where using
telecommunications is like trying to suck peanut butter up a straw
- What will happen?
- when we see $500 network computers combined with @Home cable
modem at 10,000,000 bps
- will the number of users go up, down, or stay same?
- obviously it’ll go up – this in part explains Internet fever
and the rapid stock market
- Where are we heading?
- we ain’t there yet…
- still hearing lots of criticism
- there are lots of problems related to slowness, security,
under/over regulation, and potential overload
- this shouldn’t concern us as eventually Net will handle them –
but this takes time
- but despite problems, a critical mass has been reached – we
must acknowledge the sheer magnitude of an expanding base of true
- Nothing but Net
- there is controversy over how many regular users there are but
no controversy about the fact that the Internet is coming at us
like tidal a wave
- it’s hard to exaggerate importance
- it’s opening communications to masses and quickly racing
toward full-fledged status as commercial medium
- So What About Schools?
- is it really a technological revolution?
- since late 70’s, billions of dollars and words have been spent
- in the 1995/96 academic year alone, tech spending in
K&endash;12 public schools was $4 billion – twice the amount spent
- So what’s the problem?
- we have endured years of hype and hope for electronic
education, most of which has been undertaken with the very best of
- unfortunately, the primary focus has been on tool and hardware
- as a result, the revolution is still not here – why?
- we primarily focused on the tool not the application of the
tool to curriculum
- we can’t blame a pencil if a child can’t read or do math – and
we can’t blame the technology for failing
- the problem lies mainly with curriculum and teaching
- so how does this relate to the Internet?
- it’s déjà vu all over again!
- What about the Internet?
- 90% of classrooms in America today don’t have access
- beyond that, classrooms are limited by the available equipment
as only 12% of computers in schools today are capable of Graphical
User Interface access to the Internet
- 35-50% of schools have some access but this is usually a
single station located in a classroom, the office or the library
- this is like having a single pencil for the entire school and
expecting everyone to become pencil literate
- Where are we heading?
- only 9% of classes have access (which is up from 3% in 1994)
but this will change quickly based on trends about Internet access
outside of education
- but based on the trends outside of schools, let’s extrapolate
- 5 years from now – do you think that there will be more, less,
or the same level of access for students?
- So what’s the problem then?
- it’s not about access – this will happen
- very few doubt the power and potential of age-appropriate tech
to transform education
- the problem won’t be access to computers or the Internet
- no – the real problem is about the focus
- What’s wrong?
- instructional technology holds enormous potential for
instruction and learning allowing access for any student in their
native language to a world that they are very comfortable with
- it provides opportunities to take digital field trips and
access to world-wide resources
- this isn’t the problem – it’s the mindset that we’re applying
to the technology
- we need to prepare for this new world – and we need a new
mindset that focuses on a new curriculum and new teaching
- How is it being used today?
- for most we use a proximal learning model – we put students
close to the technology and hope or assume that somehow they will
learn by osmosis – unfortunately, more often than not this does
- the problem is that kids know more than teachers so the kids
define the context and content
- so where do they go? to Wrestlemania, the Scooby Doo home
page, the NBA online, to live chat lines and to the Doom home page
- So what’s the problem?
- most schools today are little more than ISPs because students
and teachers are using Internet services without an instructional
- we have to ask whether this new media to be used for higher
level learning or will it just become a new generation of
- What skills are needed?
- skills needed to effectively utilize Internet are little
different than those used in a library – the only difference is
that we have new technology, but despite this, we’re applying an
- whatever the medium, users need a set of analytical skills to
process this information – but schools have never really mastered
teaching of information literacy
- It’s not the tool, it’s the task
- tools have no meaning without context – if I give you a
shovel, you have no idea what the context is – but if I give you a
shovel and tell you to dig a ditch, it has a context
- the Internet is a great tool, but for what?
- and this the crux of the problem – many teachers just give
students the Internet and then get out of the way
- this is a case of leap of faith, proximal learning!
- as a result, we are simply replicating old problems and
processes with new technology – now we get animated, full color
meaningless, gratuitous information more quickly – this is not
- for learning to take place, it must do so inside a context
- The problem transcends technology
- in the past, we gave kids an assignment on Saturn and got back
the Encyclopedia Britannica
- along came optical disc technology – we gave kids an
assignment on Saturn and got back the Grolier’s Multimedia
- now we give kids an assignment on Saturn and we get back the
- this is simply information bulimia – they suck up the
information and spit it out with little consideration of what it
means – as a result, many of our students are suffering from
intellectual and informational anorexia
- schools think that if they’re connected, they’re doing it
- What’s wrong?
- instructional technology and Internet are being used to gather
raw data but much of the writing and research is garbage
- information is not knowledge; and computer literacy doesn’t
necessarily cultivate information literacy
- it appears that the Internet breeds a kind of intellectual
- the ability to find and list data is no substitute for
figuring out how to organize information
- as a consequence, even in schools with full connections
students can surf the Net but can’t move beyond visiting home
- Geraldoization of information
- the Internet is a wasteland of unedited data without any
pretense of completeness – it lacks editors, reviewers, and
critics – as a consequence it is predominantly not information,
- the problem is that this is not recognized by most students
- this is the crux of problem – people have not been able to get
beyond oohing and aahing about sites and suffering from terminal
- as a consequence, we really need to shift gears… because
it’s not the Internet, it’s the information that’s important
- What is needed?
- people need more than just raw data – they must look beyond
the data for significance
- what skills are needed to see significance of data?
- An example
- the Captain Picard model of problem solving
- how and when does he use technology?
- only when he has a task to do
- he asks a question of the computer based on a problem
- access to technology is transparent
- he then analyzes the data retrieved and turns it into
- then applies the knowledge to solve the problem
- then assesses process_ he has undertaken
- 5 Stages of Information Literacy
- Stage 1 – Ask
- comes out of a problem
- if you don’t have a problem, you don’t have a question
- at this stage you are defining problem
- problem solving fosters ownership of learning
- Stage 2 – Access
- strategies more important than tools
- use driven by context created by questions
- searching techniques used to locate information
- techniques are media independent
- Stage 3 – Analyze
- how credible is the information
- need to use the tripod model of analyzing – the stool won’t
stand unless it has 3 legs so the information can’t be trusted
unless there are 3 corroborating sources
- students must be able to look at information critically
- Stage 4 – Apply
- use information to solve problem, write essay, do report,
create graph, complete argument, make presentations
- at this stage, you must take what you’ve got and create
- need to submit both raw material and analysis
- access is nothing if you can’t both analyze and apply what you
have obtained – to do this you need both technical and conceptual
- Stage 5 – Assess
- have original goals been met?
- what has been learned?
- not just what has been learned but also how it was learned?
- how could process or product be improved?
- This is what the Internet needs to be about!
- transcends Internet
- applies equally well to magazines, newspapers, textbooks,
- it’s not the tool, it’s the task
- it’s an issue of headware not hardware
- It’s not the Internet, it’s the information
- what we have is data explosion not knowledge explosion
- we have the best educated, least prepared generation
- we need the tools but we can’t stop there
- we need repeated opportunities within formal, structured
- Achieving information literacy
- students need to work with the information resources that will
bombard them throughout life
- this is not just about the ability to read and regurgitate
facts – it’s about knowing where to find facts and then how to use
- it’s about using real-life information resources for solving
- my greatest fear is that if students view and use the Internet
the way they view and use encyclopedias and CD-ROMs, we will
continue to get what we’ve always got
- It’s time to shift gears
- we must move students and teachers from a quantitative to
- it’s not how much information they have, it’s how much
knowledge they’ve gained
- Making the shift
- the bottom line is that it’s not what you use but how you use